Allaah created Adam from dust, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, the likeness of ‘Eesa (Jesus) before Allaah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!’ — and he was”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:59]When Allaah had completed the creation of Adam, He commanded the angels to prostrate to him, so they prostrated, except for Iblees, who was present but he refused and was too arrogant to prostrate to Adam:
“(Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Truly, I am going to create man from clay.
So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.’
So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them,
Except Iblees (Satan), he was proud and was one of the disbelievers”
[Saad 38:71-74 – interpretation of the meaning]
Then Allaah told the angels that He was going to place Adam on earth and make generations after generations of his offspring, as He said (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth’”
Allaah taught Adam all the names:
“And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)”
[al-Baqarah 2:31 – interpretation of the meaning]
When Iblees refused to prostrate to Adam, Allaah expelled him and cursed him:
“(Allaah) said: ‘Then get out from here; for verily, you are outcast.
And verily, My Curse is on you till the Day of Recompense’”
[Saad 38:77-78 – interpretation of the meaning]
When Iblees knew of his fate, he asked Allaah to give him respite until the Day of Resurrection:
“[Iblees (Satan)] said: ‘My Lord! Give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are resurrected.’
(Allaah) said: ‘Verily, you are of those allowed respite
Till the Day of the time appointed’”
[Saad 38:79-81 – interpretation of the meaning]
When Allaah granted him that, he declared war on Adam and his descendents, made disobedience attractive to them and tempted them to commit immoral actions:
“[Iblees (Satan)] said: ‘By Your Might, then I will surely, mislead them all,
Except Your chosen slaves amongst them (i.e. faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism).’”
[Saad 38:82-83 – interpretation of the meaning]Allaah created Adam, and from him He created his wife, and from their progeny He created men and women, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women”
Then Allaah caused Adam and his wife to dwell in Paradise, as a test for them. He commanded them to eat of the fruits of Paradise but He forbade them to eat from one tree:
“And We said: ‘O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zaalimoon (wrong-doers)’”
[al-Baqarah 2:35 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah warned Adam and his wife against the Shaytaan, as He said (interpretation of the meaning):
“O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed”
[Ta-Ha 20:117]Then the Shaytaan whispered to Adam and his wife, and tempted them to eat from the forbidden tree. Adam forgot and could not resist the temptation, so he disobeyed his Lord and ate from that tree:
“Then Shaytaan (Satan) whispered to him, saying : ‘O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?’
Then they both ate of the tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray”
[Ta-Ha 20:120-121 – interpretation of the meaning]
Their Lord called to them and said (interpretation of the meaning):
“Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaytaan (Satan) is an open enemy unto you?”
When they ate from the tree, they regretted what they had done, and said:
“Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers”
[al-A’raaf 7:23 – interpretation of the meaning]
The sin of Adam stemmed from desire, not from arrogance, hence Allaah guided him to repent and He accepted that from him:
“Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful”
[al-Baqarah 2:37 – interpretation of the meaning]
This is the way for Adam and his descendents: whoever sins then repents sincerely, Allaah will accept his repentance:
“And He it is Who accepts repentance from His slaves, and forgives sins, and He knows what you do”
[al-Shoora 42:25 – interpretation of the meaning]
Then Allaah sent Adam and his wife, and Iblees, down to the earth, and He sent down Revelation to them and He sent the Messengers to them. So whoever believes will enter Paradise and whoever disbelieves will enter Hell:
“We said: ‘Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve.
But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) — such are the dwellers of the Fire. They shall abide therein forever’”
[al-Baqarah 2:38-39 – interpretation of the meaning]
When Allaah sent them all down to the earth, the conflict between faith and kufr, between truth and falsehood, between good and evil, began, and it will continue until Allaah inherits the earth and everyone on it:
“(Allaah) said: ‘Get down, one of you an enemy to the other [i.e. Adam, Hawwa, (Eve), and Shaytaan (Satan)]. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time’
[al-A’raaf 7:24 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah is Able to do all things. He created Adam with no father or mother, and He created Hawwa from a father with no mother, and He created ‘Eesa from a mother with no father, and He created us from a father and a mother.
Allaah created Adam from dust, then He made his descendents from semen of despised water, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Who made everything He has created good and He began the creation of man from clay.
Then He made his offspring from semen of despised water (male and female sexual discharge).
Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him the soul (created by Allaah for that person); and He gave you hearing (ears), sight (eyes) and hearts. Little is the thanks you give!”
How man is created in the womb, and the stages which he goes through, is a wondrous thing. Allaah mentioned this in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth).
Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman).
Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So Blessed is Allaah, the Best of creators”
Allaah Alone creates whatever He wills. He knows what is in the wombs, and He decrees provision and lifespans (for His creatures):
“To Allaah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female (offspring) upon whom He wills, and bestows male (offspring) upon whom He wills.
Or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. Verily, He is the All‑Knower and is Able to do all things”
[al-Shoora 42:49-50 – interpretation of the meaning]The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has appointed an angel over the womb. He says, ‘O Lord, a drop of semen (nutfah); O Lord, a clot (‘alaqah); O Lord, a little lump of flesh (mudghah).’ Then if Allah wishes (to complete) its creation, the angel asks, (O Lord) male or female, wretched (doomed to Hell) or blessed (destined for Paradise)? How much will his provision be? And what will his lifespan be?’ So that is written whilst (the child) is still in the mother's womb.”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 318)
Allaah honoured the children of Adam and subjugated for their benefit that which is in the heavens and on earth:
“See you not (O men) that Allaah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and has completed and perfected His Graces upon you, (both) apparent (i.e. Islamic Monotheism, and the lawful pleasures of this world, including health, good looks) and hidden [i.e. one’s faith in Allaah (of Islamic Monotheism), knowledge, wisdom, guidance for doing righteous deeds, and also the pleasures and delights of the Hereafter in Paradise]?
[Luqmaan 31:20 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah has distinguished and honoured man with reason by which he knows his Lord, Creator and Provider, and by which he knows what is good and evil, what will benefit him and what will harm him, what is halaal and what is haraam.
Allaah did not create man and leave him alone with no path to follow. Rather, Allaah revealed the Books and sent Messengers to guide mankind to the Straight Path.
Allaah created people with a natural inclination towards monotheism (Tawheed – belief in the Oneness of Allaah). Every time they deviated from that, Allaah sent a Prophet to bring them back to the Straight Path. The first of the Prophets was Adam and the last was Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
“Mankind were one community and Allaah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent down the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed
[al-Baqarah 2:213 – interpretation of the meaning]
All the Messengers called people to the same truth, which is the worship of Allaah alone and to reject all gods besides Him:
“And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allaah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taaghoot (all false deities, i.e. do not worship Taaghoot besides Allaah).”
[al-Nahl 16:36 – interpretation of the meaning]
The religion with which Allaah sent the Prophets and Messengers was the same, i.e., Islam:
“Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islam”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:19 – interpretation of the meaning]
The last of the heavenly Books which Allaah revealed was the Qur’aan, confirming the Books which came before it, and as a guidance to all of mankind:
“(This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you (O Muhammad) in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness (of disbelief and polytheism) into light
[Ibraaheem 14:1 – interpretation of the meaning]
The last of the Prophets and Messengers whom Allaah sent was Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allaah and the last (end) of the Prophets”
[al-Ahzaab 33:40 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah sent Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to all of mankind:
“Say (O Muhammad): ‘O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allaah’”
[al-A’raaf 7:158 – interpretation of the meaning]
The Qur’aan is the last and greatest of the heavenly Books and Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the last and best of the Prophets and Messengers.
Allaah has abrogated all of the heavenly Books with the Qur’aan, so whoever does not follow the Qur’aan and enter Islam and believe in the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and follow him, his deeds will not be accepted:
“And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:85 – interpretation of the meaning]
The religion which was brought by Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) confirms the message brought by the Prophets before him, in its basic principles and advocation of noble characteristics, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“He (Allaah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islamic Monotheism) which He ordained for Nooh (Noah), and that which We have revealed to you (O Muhammad), and that which We ordained for Ibraaheem (Abraham), Moosa (Moses) and ‘Eesa (Jesus) saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically) and make no divisions] in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion).
From Usool al-Deen al-Islami, by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri.